According to Daniel Olweus, a Psychologist from Norway, Bullying is defined as a line of repetitive violent behaviors and actions towards other people, who are less dominant. Those violent behaviors are characterized as “negative behaviors” when they target to harm, or to create negative emotions to others (e.g. students) (Olweus, 1993).
Other researches underline that violent behaviors should not linked with violence and juvenile delinquency. That means that there is a line which distinguishes a “quip” among friends which takes place during a productive process or a game and it does not contain violent elements. The difference between bullying and a quip is that the latter is not characterized by a repetitive frame of violent behaviors.
According to the above definition, a bullying incident includes the following characteristics (Olweus, 1993):
- Physical Violence (bumps, stings, bites, shoves)
- Exclusion of a student from social activities, which leads that person to isolation
- Sexual harassment
- Threats and blackmails
- Verbal violence (verbal bullying) which is related with the ethnicity, race, religion, sexual identity, or other kind of handicap
- Stealing and destruction of personal belongings of the person who is bullied
- Deliberate abruption of a child/adolescent from his/her friends.
- Spreading immoral or false rumors for the person being bullied
Some bullies use modern technology such as mobile phones, or the internet.
This ‘cyber bullying’ includes:
- text-message bullying
- phone-call bullying
- picture/video-clip bullying (via
mobile phone cameras)
- email bullying
- chat-room bullying
- bullying through instant messaging
- bullying via websites.
Please watch the following video for Bullying: